组合模式

概述

组合模式又叫部分整体模式,是用于把一组相似的对象当作一个单一的对象。组合模式依据树形结构来组合对象,用来表示部分以及整体层次。这种类型的设计模式属于结构型模式,它创建了对象组的树形结构。

这种模式创建了一个包含自己对象组的类。该类提供了修改相同对象组的方式。

使用场景

部分、整体场景,如树形菜单,文件、文件夹的管理。

具体实现

public class Employee {
private String name;
private String dept;
private int salary;
private List<Employee> subordinates;
//构造函数
public Employee(String name,String dept, int sal) {
this.name = name;
this.dept = dept;
this.salary = sal;
subordinates = new ArrayList<Employee>();
}
public void add(Employee e) {
subordinates.add(e);
}
public void remove(Employee e) {
subordinates.remove(e);
}
public List<Employee> getSubordinates(){
return subordinates;
}
public String toString(){
return ("Employee :[ Name : "+ name
+", dept : "+ dept + ", salary :"
+ salary+" ]");
}
}
public class Demo {
public static void main(String[] args) {
Employee CEO = new Employee("John","CEO", 30000);
Employee headSales = new Employee("Robert","Head Sales", 20000);
Employee headMarketing = new Employee("Michel","Head Marketing", 20000);
Employee clerk1 = new Employee("Laura","Marketing", 10000);
Employee clerk2 = new Employee("Bob","Marketing", 10000);
Employee salesExecutive1 = new Employee("Richard","Sales", 10000);
Employee salesExecutive2 = new Employee("Rob","Sales", 10000);
CEO.add(headSales);
CEO.add(headMarketing);
headSales.add(salesExecutive1);
headSales.add(salesExecutive2);
headMarketing.add(clerk1);
headMarketing.add(clerk2);
//打印该组织的所有员工
System.out.println(CEO);
for (Employee headEmployee : CEO.getSubordinates()) {
System.out.println(headEmployee);
for (Employee employee : headEmployee.getSubordinates()) {
System.out.println(employee);
}
}
}
}

运行结果:

Employee :[ Name : John, dept : CEO, salary :30000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Robert, dept : Head Sales, salary :20000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Richard, dept : Sales, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Rob, dept : Sales, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Michel, dept : Head Marketing, salary :20000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Laura, dept : Marketing, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Bob, dept : Marketing, salary :10000 ]

总结

优点:

  • 高层模块调用简单。
  • 节点自由增加。

缺点:

  • 在使用组合模式时,其叶子和树枝的声明都是实现类,而不是接口,违反了依赖倒置原则。
坚持原创技术分享,您的支持将鼓励我继续创作!
0%